[Shantanu Dhingra is a third year law student at National Law University Odisha]
Antitrust authorities and policymakers are currently grappling with the use of Most-Favored Nation (MFN) clauses in merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions. While MFN clauses can provide benefits such as lower prices and increased efficiencies, they can also have anti-competitive effects by limiting market competition. This article explores the use of MFN clauses in M&A transactions and provides recommendations for antitrust authorities and policymakers on how to regulate their use to ensure competition is not unduly restrained.
Anticompetitive Effects of MFN Clauses
MFN clauses are commonly used in commercial agreements to establish uniform pricing or other terms across different buyers or sellers. However, the use of MFN clauses can have significant implications for competition, particularly in rapidly evolving sectors such as e-commerce.
On the one hand, MFN clauses can increase efficiency by reducing transaction costs and promoting coordination among buyers or sellers. For example, they can reduce the need for frequent negotiations or complex pricing structures, leading to lower costs and more predictable outcomes for all parties. However, MFN clauses can also limit competition by creating entry barriers and reducing the incentive for firms to compete on price and quality.
Specifically, in the context of e-commerce, the use of MFN clauses by online marketplaces can potentially restrict competition by discouraging suppliers from offering better prices or terms to other marketplaces. This can lead to higher prices for consumers and reduced competition in the marketplace. Furthermore, MFN clauses can create entry barriers for new players by increasing the cost of entry into the market.
The Competition Commission of India (CCI) has taken a proactive approach to addressing potential anticompetitive effects of MFN clauses in India's e-commerce sector. In its 2017 report on e-commerce in India, the CCI highlighted the need to monitor the use of MFN clauses, particularly in the context of online marketplaces. The CCI identified that MFN clauses could potentially harm competition by leading to price uniformity, discouraging market entry for new competitors, and limiting consumer choice. As a result, consumer welfare losses may arise from reduced product variety, innovation, and competitive pricing.
The CCI's concerns about the anticompetitive effects of MFN clauses are consistent with its broader approach to promoting competition in India's e-commerce sector. For example, in 2019, the CCI launched an investigation into allegations of abuse of dominance by Amazon and Flipkart, two of the largest online marketplaces in India. The investigation focused on allegations that Amazon and Flipkart were engaging in exclusive arrangements with certain sellers and using deep discounting practices that could potentially harm competition.
In its report on the investigation, the CCI recommended that online marketplaces be required to disclose the terms of their agreements with sellers and refrain from using MFN clauses that could harm competition. The CCI also recommended that online marketplaces be required to implement strict compliance mechanisms and internal controls to prevent anticompetitive conduct.
MFN clauses have had anticompetitive effects in various industries, particularly in the online booking sector. For example, in 2015, the European Commission found that MFN clauses used by online travel agencies such as Booking.com prevented hotels from offering lower room rates on their own websites, thus limiting competition. Similarly, in the e-book market, Apple was found to have used MFN clauses in its contracts with publishers, which prevented them from offering lower prices to competitors like Amazon. This resulted in higher prices for e-books and reduced competition. Another example is the case of MFN clauses used by insurers, which prevented hospitals from offering lower prices to other insurers, thus limiting competition and resulting in higher prices for patients. These examples illustrate how MFN clauses can be used by dominant players to stifle competition and harm consumers.
Overall, the use of MFN clauses in India's e-commerce sector has the potential to impact competition and consumer welfare in both positive and negative ways. While MFN clauses can promote efficiency and coordination, they can also create anticompetitive effects by reducing the incentive for firms to compete on price and quality. As India's e-commerce sector continues to grow and evolve, it is essential that the CCI continues to monitor the use of MFN clauses and take action when necessary to ensure that competition is not unduly restricted.
The Potential Risks of MFN Clauses in M&A Transactions
MFN clauses in M&A transactions have been subject to legal scrutiny for their potential anticompetitive effects, as they can facilitate collusion and coordination between firms, reducing competition and harming consumers. Under MFN clauses, firms are incentivized to coordinate their pricing and other business practices to benefit from the same favorable terms, ultimately leading to increased prices and reduced innovation. The MakeMyTrip-GoIbibo case in India exemplifies the nuanced approach that antitrust authorities, such as the CCI, must take when evaluating the use of MFN clauses. In this case, the CCI found that the MFN clauses used by the parties had the potential to harm competition and consumers. However, it also recognized that MFN clauses can have pro-competitive effects in certain circumstances, emphasizing the need for case-by-case evaluations to determine their overall impact on market competition and consumer welfare. Here are some Key challenges associated with MFN Clauses-
Barrier to entry for new firms- MFN clauses can create significant barriers to entry for new firms. When dominant firms require their suppliers or distributors to agree to an MFN clause, they effectively prevent new entrants from entering the market. This results in a market where only a few dominant firms operate, limiting competition, and ultimately harming consumers by reducing choice and driving up prices. MFN clauses required by dominant firms can limit consumer choice by restricting the availability of alternative products or services, thereby reducing competition, consumer welfare, and the quality of available products and services. In Excel Crop Care Limited v. Competition Commission of India, MFN clauses used by a dominant pesticide manufacturer were found to restrict alternative pesticide availability, reducing competition and harming consumer choice. The CCI held such clauses anti-competitive, leading to higher prices and reduced innovation by restricting other manufacturers' ability to enter and compete.
Regulatory capture risk- In addition, the use of MFN clauses can create a risk of regulatory capture, as dominant firms may use their market power to influence regulators and shape the regulatory environment to their advantage. This can result in regulations that favor the dominant firm and limit the ability of new entrants to compete, further reducing competition and harming consumers.
Consumer Choice: MFN clauses can limit the availability of alternative products or services, thereby reducing competition, consumer welfare, and the overall quality of available products and services.
Therefore, there is a need for careful consideration of MFN clauses in M&A transactions to ensure that they do not have anticompetitive effects. Regulators and policymakers need to balance the potential benefits of MFN clauses in reducing transaction costs with their potential harm to competition and consumer welfare. It is essential to assess the competitive effects of MFN clauses and develop appropriate regulatory frameworks to promote competition and innovation in the market.
Most-favored-nation (MFN) clauses are provisions commonly included in M&A agreements that require one party to provide the other party with pricing, contractual, or other favorable terms that are equal or better than those offered to any other party. MFN clauses have both procompetitive and anticompetitive effects, and their impact on competition depends on several factors. Therefore, antitrust authorities and policymakers should approach the regulation of MFN clauses in M&A transactions with caution and conduct a case-by-case analysis to determine their competitive effects.
The first factor that antitrust authorities and policymakers should evaluate is the market structure in which the M&A transaction takes place. A highly concentrated market with few potential entrants is more likely to be negatively affected by MFN clauses, as they can increase market power and reduce competition. In such a market, the inclusion of an MFN clause in an M&A agreement could further entrench the market power of the parties and make it more difficult for new entrants to compete.
The second factor to consider is the type of goods or services at issue. The competitive effects of MFN clauses may vary depending on the nature of the market. For example, in a market for healthcare services, MFN clauses could lead to higher prices and reduced competition among hospitals or healthcare providers. In contrast, in a market for books or music, MFN clauses could lead to lower prices for consumers and increased access to a wider range of titles.
The third factor to evaluate is the scope and duration of the MFN clause. The broader the scope of the MFN clause and the longer its duration, the more likely it is to have anticompetitive effects. Therefore, antitrust authorities and policymakers should consider limiting the scope and duration of MFN clauses to reduce their potential for anticompetitive effects.
Once antitrust authorities and policymakers have evaluated the competitive effects of MFN clauses in a particular M&A transaction, they should consider a range of possible remedies. These may include prohibiting the use of MFN clauses altogether, limiting the scope and duration of MFN clauses, or requiring parties to provide notice to the antitrust authorities prior to the implementation of an MFN clause. The appropriate remedy will depend on the specific circumstances of the transaction and the competitive effects of the MFN clause.
While MFN clauses have the potential to benefit consumers by promoting efficiency and competition, they also raise concerns about anticompetitive behavior and market power. The use of MFNs in M&A transactions is a complex issue that requires careful consideration by antitrust authorities and policymakers. Any regulation or intervention in this area must balance the potential benefits of MFNs against the risk of anticompetitive effects, and must take into account the specific characteristics of each market and transaction. Ultimately, the goal should be to promote competition and consumer welfare, while ensuring that market power is not unfairly used or abused.